blogging sabbatical

With regret, I’m not able to blog this summer due to my teaching and writing responsibilities.  Do check back — I hope to return to blogging and working on this site before my last conference presentation of the year, scheduled for mid-August.

April 26, 2015 (Year B, Easter 4) Celtic Meditation

John 10:11-18

In this short passage, Jesus twice refers to himself as the Good Shepherd and three times tells his disciples that he, as the Good Shepherd,[1] lays down his life for his people.

Jesus begins this parable by explaining the difference between the hired shepherd and the true shepherd of the flock. The hired shepherd does not defend the sheep from danger but seeks his own safety first. In contrast, the true shepherd of the flock is so invested in the well-being of the flock that he will risk his own life for the flock. From this metaphor, Jesus explains that he, out of his care for his people, willingly sacrifices his own life for our safety. While we, as Christians, are called to imitate Christ, sometimes we forget our place in this parable. In what ways do we, as church, attempt to serve the world in the place of the Good Shepherd rather than as the sheep who are loved by the Good Shepherd?

Jesus’ identity is based upon God the Father knowing him and his knowing the Father. Part of this knowing between God the Father and God the Son is the knowledge that the Son will lay down his life for the people of God. Just as Jesus’ identity is based upon the mutual knowing and being known by God the Father, our identity as Christians is based upon being known by Jesus and knowing Jesus. In this parable of the Good Shepherd, this knowing looks like sheep listening to their Shepherd. The sheep respond to the Shepherd’s voice, not the “bleating of other sheep,”[2] and are joined into one flock. How can we, the non-Jewish fold of sheep[3] known as the church, offer a place where others can join us to hear Jesus’ voice as we worship and serve?

The Son of God is loved by God because, as the Good Shepherd, he lays down his life in order to take it up again. Our Good Shepherd chose to give his life for the sake of us sheep, not merely as a sacrifice, but also as demonstration of his power that he exercises on behalf of his people. This act of power is not only approved by God the Father, but it is integral to God’s plan of salvation. What does it look like for us, the sheep of the Good Shepherd, to demonstrate to ourselves and others that we recognize and trust the Good Shepherd’s power to die and to rise from the dead?

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[1] For a detailed analysis of the development of this metaphor of God as the true shepherd of God’s people, see Andreas J. Köstenberger’s “Jesus the Good Shepherd Who Will also Bring Other Sheep (John 10:16): the Old Testament Background of a Familiar Metaphor,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 12.1 (2002): 67-96.

[2] Philip E. Thompson, “John 10:11-18,” Interpretation, 51 no 2 April 1997, 185.

[3] The “this fold” sheep refers to the Jews; the “sheep that don’t belong to this fold” refers to Gentile believers. What is shared in parable will be revealed fully after Jesus’ resurrection.

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

April 12, 2015 (Year B, Easter 2) Celtic Meditation

John 20:19-31

On the evening of his resurrection, Jesus went to his disciples and showed them the proof that he was the same person they had always known by showing them his pierced hands and side. The disciples rejoiced that Jesus was, miraculously, alive![1] Jesus commissioned them with a message of peace and reconciliation and empowered them with the Holy Spirit. How do we, as church, demonstrate that we have been commissioned and empowered to participate in God’s mission of peace and reconciliation?

Thomas wasn’t there with the other disciples on that first Easter. John doesn’t tell us why Thomas wasn’t there with the other disciples. When Thomas returns, the other disciples describe what they have seen and experienced. Thomas doesn’t trust them. By his request to touch Jesus, he expressed his grief and frustration. He wanted to know that the same Jesus that he ate with, that he bumped up against on the road and in boats for the last three years was the same Jesus that they are talking about. Dead men don’t suddenly appear in locked rooms, show their death wounds, and bless those who abandoned them in their hour of need. Resurrection is hard to understand, especially when grief is so fresh. Thomas needed to see Jesus for himself. He needed to not only see, he instinctively knew that he needed to use all of his senses in order to get his head wrapped around the reality of Jesus’ bodily resurrection. This is understandable; we who live in the “Show Me” state recognize that until we are convinced with our senses, some of us can be as stubborn as Missouri mules. Either the truth of the resurrection was just too much or somehow the other disciples had lost Thomas’s trust. What attitudes and dispositions do we, as church, have toward each other, and especially towards those who are suffering, that makes trusting us difficult?

Maybe what Thomas was asked to believe was beyond what even the most trusting person can believe in the midst of that much sorrow. Either way, the week between that first Easter and the next Sunday must have been miserable for Thomas. When Jesus appeared the next time, Thomas is present. Jesus offered Thomas exactly what he said that he needed to believe, but just being in Jesus’ presence was enough. In Thomas’s joy, belief, and relief, Jesus didn’t rebuke him for not trusting the other disciples. Instead, Jesus used whatever had caused Thomas to suffer through a lonely week to bless us. We who can’t see Jesus the way that the disciples did (because we live after Jesus’ ascension) are called to trust the very people that Thomas had trouble believing. Trusting in the testimony of these disciples is a life or death proposition: by believing that Jesus died and was raised from the dead and living accordingly, we have real life. How can we, as church, more fully live into our baptismal vows to embody the trustworthy teaching of these apostles so that others can come to know Jesus as Messiah, the Son of God, the life-giver?

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[1] Jesus also appears within a locked room, apparently without going through the doors, so while he is still the same Jesus, something is now very different about his body.

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

April 19, 2015 (Year B, Easter 3) Celtic Meditation

Luke 24:36b-48

This reading describes the events back in Jerusalem on the evening of Jesus’ resurrection. Earlier in the day, the women had gone to anoint Jesus’ body, but found the tomb empty. In that confusing moment of discovery, two angels[1] explain to the women that Jesus was not in the tomb because he has risen (Luke 24:1-7). The women told the disciples, but the disciples didn’t believe the women.  Peter, however, went to the tomb to investigate. He saw the strips of linen that Jesus’ dead body had been wrapped in, but what he saw didn’t make sense (Luke 24:8-12). Sure, he had heard Jesus say that after his death that he would rise from the dead. He had seen Jesus raise Lazarus from the dead, but in the midst of grief, how could any of this make sense?

In the midst of all this confusion and sorrow, two disciples left to return to Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. They encountered the resurrected Jesus along the way, but didn’t recognize him until after he explained, from Scripture, his mission to them. But it was when he stayed to eat with them and served the meal that they recognized Jesus for who he was. Jesus disappeared; they got up immediately from the table and went back to Jerusalem to tell the eleven disciples (Luke 24:13-33). In the meantime, Jesus had appeared to Peter (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:3-5). The addition information from these witnesses must have made for a wild conversation!

While the disciples were discussing these events, suddenly, Jesus was among them. Whatever had been the mood in the room before, now the room is full of startled and terrified people. Jesus immediately responds to their fear that they are seeing a ghost by demonstrating that he is present with them in a physical body that can be touched and can eat. The bodily resurrection of Jesus has been central to the Christian faith from this moment in time. Why is it important for us, as church, to recognize that Jesus’ body was resurrected, not just his spirit?

After settling their anxiety by proving to them that he was really alive,[2] Jesus explained to them how his death and resurrection is in fulfillment of the Old Testament Scriptures.[3] But in order to understand the scriptures, Jesus had to open their minds. The two men on the way to Emmaus described this experience as having their “hearts burning within them” as Jesus taught them (Luke 24:32). How does knowing that even the disciples who were eye witnesses to Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection needed God’s assistance to understand what the Scriptures teach about Jesus affect how we, as Church, read, study, and discuss Scripture?

Understanding who Jesus is—the Messiah—and what the mission of the church is—to continue being a witness to the truth of the gospel that the Messiah suffered, died, and was raised on the third day in fulfillment of the Scriptures—is necessary for the next stage of God’s work of restoration. Through Jesus, repentance brings forgiveness of sins. How can we, as Church, more fully live into the confidence that God will finish the work of redemption because of Jesus’ resurrection?

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[1] Luke describes these two persons as men in gleaming clothing (Luke 24:4). In John’s gospel, Mary Magdalene talks with two angels (John 20:12).

[2] Not only is Jesus alive, but he is also still fully human. To be human requires having a body.

[3] That the “law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms” are explicitly mentioned demonstrates the importance of accepting the entirety of the Old Testament as Christian sacred scriptures.

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

March 29, 2015 (Year B, Palm Sunday) Celtic Meditation

Mark 11:1-11

I wonder if the disciples were surprised when Jesus sent them to go get a donkey colt that had never been ridden. I wonder if they were surprised that the acquisition of the colt went as smoothly as it did and just like Jesus said it would. When have we, as a church, followed what we knew to be a clear set of counter-intuitive instructions from the Lord and been surprised to find that we were doing exactly what we needed to be doing when we needed to be doing it?

In hindsight, the disciples recognized that Jesus was fulfilling Zechariah’s prophesy.[1] What happened next is the people’s response to Jesus’ actions also foretold in this same passage of Zechariah’s prophesies. The people responded using a phrase from Psalm 118, but the language might seem odd to us today even though we use this same phrase every week in the traditional eucharistic liturgy. “Hosanna” is Aramaic for “save us, we pray”[2] and is addressed to the blessed one, the one who is to be praised, who comes in the full authority of God. This plea for salvation asks God, from God’s highest dwelling place, to save the people. When Jesus, the long awaited son of King David, entered Jerusalem, the actions of the people matched their words. They pleaded for salvation, a salvation that comes through the institution of the Davidic kingdom by the man whom they accepted as the one approved by God. They used their coats to smooth out the road[3] and they waved branches to celebrate the coming of the Son of David into David’s royal city. What do we, as church, need to be doing so that our actions more clearly align with our words used when we celebrate the eucharist which is the Son of David’s instrument for bringing in his kingdom?

Jesus then went to the temple, looked around, noticed the time of day, and went back to Bethany for the night. Sometimes, even when we know what needs to be done, what we most need to do in the moment is to wait. This week, our practice, as church, is to wait and remember. What does it look like for us, as church, to discern the time and season and wait for the right time to act?

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[1] Zechariah 9:9. For Mark’s use of Zechariah 14, see Paul Brooks Duff, “The March of the Divine Warrior and the Advent of the Greco-Roman King: Mark’s Account of Jesus’ Entry into Jerusalem.” Journal of Biblical Literature 111/1 (1992): 55-71. For the contrast between Jesus’ entry into the city and Greco-Roman traditions of the day, see Brent Kinman, “Jesus’ Royal Entry into Jerusalem.” Bulletin for Biblical Research 15.2 (2005): 223-260.

[2] USB Greek lexicon

[3] I wonder if this laying down of coats is a way of “making straight the path of the Lord” commanded in Isaiah 45:13 which is repeated in Mark 1:3 but now applied to Jesus. Through John the baptizer’s ministry, many of the people of Israel were looking for the Messiah.

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

March 22, 2015 (Year B Lent 5) Celtic Meditation

John 12:20-33

On his way to Jerusalem for what will be his last Passover, Jesus has raised Lazarus from the dead; has been anointed by Lazarus’ sister, Mary, in what Jesus accepts as a pre-burial anointing; and has triumphantly arrived in Jerusalem. As the Passover approaches, Greeks, non-Jewish people, who were attracted to the God worshiped by the Jews, desire to see Jesus.[1] Jesus accepts this recognition from non-Jews as a sign that the hour for his glorification has come. Greek philosophy prized the good life and these Greeks must have heard something about Jesus that indicated that the good life was in him. But this good life is not what the ruler of the world offered then and continues to offer. The ruler of this world offers money, power, prestige, food and things as life, but this is not life that really satisfies. Jesus explains the paradoxical way of true life, eternal life, from an agricultural example.[2] Individual seeds die in order to produce fruit. Jesus was called to really die so that all might really live. Those who follow Jesus are called to die to the life the ruler of the world offers in order to really live. In what ways do we continue to seek after the things offered by the world rather than doing the hard work of following Jesus by living into our baptismal vows of turning from the ways that do not give life?

The work of dying for the sake of the world is not something that Jesus has looked forward to. Yet, the audible answer to his prayer is not for his comfort.[3] For the sake of the Greeks who represent the non-Jewish people of the world as well as Jesus’ disciples, God the Father audibly responds to Jesus’ prayer that the name of God be glorified. When have we, as church, heard the voice of God not for our sake, but for the sake of others?

When Jesus is lifted up, he draws all people to himself. God’s name is glorified at the crucifixion. With the scent of the anointing for his death probably still lingering about him, Jesus knew that he first had to suffer pain before he could enter into joy and his glorification.[4] Yet, in these Greeks who came to see him, Jesus saw the beginnings of the fruit of his death.[5] As followers of Jesus, what are we doing as a church community that demonstrates to us and to those around us that we are living fruit produced by Jesus’ death?

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

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[1] For a detailed discussion of why the Greeks were not expected to respond and how the coming of the Greeks affected Jesus, see John A. Davis, “The Desire of the Nations—John 12:20-22,” The Reformed Theological Review, 69 no 3 (2010): 151-163.

[2] Last week, we heard the explanation of Jesus’ death on the cross from a Jewish perspective, using the history of the Jewish people to explain that when Jesus is lifted up from the earth on the cross, those who know they are dying from sin and trust God for healing through Jesus’ death, will be made alive.

[3] This is the second time in two chapters that Jesus explains that the purpose of a supernatural event was for the sake of those around him so that they could believe and make sense of what is to come. For the sake of Jesus’ disciples, Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11:15-44) so that they would know that Jesus is the life-giver (John1:1-4, John 11:25-26), the one through whom the glory of God is revealed (John 11:40).

[4] Book of Common Prayer, Morning Prayer, collect for Friday.

[5] Richard L. Jeske, “John 12:20-36,” Interpretation 43 no 3 (1989): 292-295.

March 15, 2015 (Year B Lent 4) Celtic Meditation

John 3:14-21[1]

After Moses led the people out of Egypt, the people of Israel wandered in the wilderness for 40 years. God had promised to bring them into the promised land but when this didn’t happen as quickly as they wanted, they became impatient and complained about God’s provisions for their daily needs.[2] As punishment, God sent fiery serpents among them. These fiery serpents bit the people. Some of them died. The people recognized their complaining as lack of trust and repented. They pleaded with Moses to ask God to take away the snakes. God instructed Moses to make a representation of the serpent and attach it to a pole so that whenever someone was bit, the dying person could look upon the image on the pole and live.[3] God provided a cure for the consequence of this particular punishment for sin and those who knew they were snake-bit, trusted God, and accepted God’s instrument for saving them from the poisonous snake-bite were saved. John saw this event in the desert as a foreshadow of the crucifixion. The cross represents our sin, those who recognize that they are sin-bit and trustingly look to Jesus on the cross as the cure for the fatal illness resulting from sin-bite will be saved.[4] What does it look like for us, as church, to fully acknowledge that we are each being saved from the deadly poison of sin?

Those who trust in Jesus will not perish because they already have received the cure for the poisonous sin-bite, which is experienced as eternal life. Towards the end of this gospel, John defines what he means by “eternal life.” “Eternal life” is knowing the One true God and Jesus Christ as the One sent by God[5] which leads to a new way of being in the world. How can we, as church, live more fully into the eternal life that we are already experiencing so that we can better demonstrate the trustworthiness of God’s cure for sin through Jesus?

Judgment, according to John, is something that is already happening. How we respond to Jesus reveals our relationship with God and this relationship with God is what determines our judgment. Those who are sin-bit and do not look to God’s cure for sin participate in deeds that they do not want exposed in the light of day or in the light of Christ. These activities of those who are dying from the poison of the sin-bite are called “evil.” But those who are attracted to Jesus are not ashamed of their deeds because God is the source and motivation for these deeds. Having Jesus, the Light of the World, expose these deeds brings glory to God. As those who are coming to the Light, what does it look like for us to transparently examine the motivation and strength for the activities which define of our common life as church?

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

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[1] In this short reading, we have the heart of the gospel in a nutshell. We have Jesus’ identity (God’s unique Son who is also the Son of Man; the One who is fully divine and fully human), his mission (sent by the Father to save those who believe in Him), the purpose of his mission (because God so loved the world), and the result of this mission (those who believe in Jesus will not perish but have eternal life which includes doing good deeds which bring glory to God).

[2] For a recounting of this part of the story, see Numbers 21:1-9.

[3] The word translated as “fiery” can also be translated as seraph. Peter J. Leithart rightly notes that the command in the Hebrew text is to make a representation of the “fiery being” while the Septuagint understands this being as a snake. In the Numbers account, “fiery one” may be a nominative focusing on the effect of the bite rather than the type of creature. The question that arises from this first use of the Hebrew term in the Old Testament canon seems to be whether the seraph in Isaiah is a winged serpent or whether the Isaiah passage is an allusion to Numbers 21 and the similar attitude of the people (unclean lips). See Leithart’s essay “What are Seraphim,” First Things, December 15, 2010 (accessed 3/14/2015) for more information. For a post about how these two readings could work together, see Dan Handschy’s 15 March 2015 post “Snake Bit” on his blog, Rector’s Reflections.

[4] Peter L. van Dyken. “As Moses Lifted Up the Serpent in the Wilderness.” Reformed Journal 9 no. 10 (1959): 20-22.

[5] John 17:3

March 8, 2014 (Year B Lent 3) Celtic Meditation

John 2:13-22

In John’s gospel, this incident in Jesus’ ministry comes immediately after his first miracle at the wedding feast in Cana. His disciples, having seen this miracle, trust him (John 2:11). In this reading, Jesus is at the center of the Jewish world, the Temple in Jerusalem, and he is violently challenging the use of this sacred space as a place of commerce. His actions might have been less startling to the Jews of his day since Jesus’ behavior is in line with that of the prophets. The prophets had consistently warned the people of God against diluted worship practices and taking advantage of others in trade.[1]  Here, the issue is the practice of commerce in the space set aside for worship. How have we, as church, mingled secular with sacred in our sacred space and, in doing so, made it hard for people to worship and pray with us?

Even if prophetic action like Jesus’ was less startling then than it might be now, the religious leaders needed verification of Jesus’ authority for his actions. The sign that they ask for is a sign of God’s authorization for Jesus to serve as a prophet. Jesus explained what the coming sign was, but the leaders of the Temple misunderstood.  Jesus’ reply–that the sign of his authority to be both priest and prophet is that the temple, the dwelling place of God, will be torn down and then he will rebuild it in three days–can only be understood after the first Easter.  The Temple of God, the place where God dwells, is uniquely in the person of Jesus.  What does it look like for us, as church, to live into our acceptance of Jesus’ death and resurrection as a sign of Jesus’ authority?

Jesus’ disciples had begun to trust Jesus, but their faith would be much more robust after Jesus was raised from the dead. Then they realized that Jesus’ actions in the Temple that day were an expression of his living out Psalm 69. Jesus’ passion for the people of God is summarized by verse 9: “Zeal for your house will consume me.”[2] As we continue through our Lenten journey, let us ask ourselves what do we as church, as those who have tasted Jesus’ authority, need to be doing in order to grow into an all-consuming zeal for God’s house in our day?

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

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[1] William Pape Wood. “John 2:13-22.” Interpretation 45 no 1 (1991): 59-63. In particular, Zechariah had prophesied that the day was coming when all of Israel would be holy to the Lord and there would be no trade taking place in the Temple (Zech 14:21).

[2] Richard B. Hayes, “Can the Gospels Teach Us How to Read the Old Testament?” Pro ecclesia, 11 no 4 (Fall 2002), 413-415.

March 1, 2015 (Year B Lent 2) Celtic Meditation

Mark 8:31-38

Jesus’ suffering and death are necessary in order for him to rise again. This is hard news. At the time that Peter hears this pattern, no one has ever risen from the dead. It’s not surprising that Peter has set his mind on human things rather than divine things. We, as church, are called to think in divine terms as best we can, based upon what has been revealed to us. We should expect the pattern of our lives, as church, to follow the pattern of Jesus’ paradoxical life.

Jesus’ paradoxical life is summarized as denying his individual rights, taking up a cross, dying, and then rising to new life for the sake of others. Denial of oneself means giving up thinking in terms of ‘me’ and my rights, of cooperating with a culture that promotes the individual over the community. We, as church, are called to take up what the world sees as death to self in order to follow Jesus into a kingdom that offers new life, real life. What does it look like for us, as church, to deny the drive toward individualism in order to live as a community focused on following Jesus?

The paradox is that only by dying, by losing his life, is Jesus able to rise to new life. Only by dying and rising is Jesus able to offer up his life for us that we might live. This is part of the mystery of the eucharist. Jesus’ body is broken and his blood is poured out for our sake, that through his death and resurrection, we are made alive. Those who seek to save their lives lose them but those who are willing to lose their lives by following Jesus find their lives. The eucharist that we celebrate together is both the model of community life and the means by which we are enabled to live this paradoxical, communal life. When we eat this sacred meal together, we participate in Jesus’ death, life, and resurrection. What does it look like for us, as church, to live eucharistically and be poured out for the sake of others?

Jesus gives us two options in this passage. We can follow him and live counter-culturally, being willing to follow him through a path of suffering and self-denial as we struggle to live as community under God’s rule. This eucharistic path leads to death first and then to life. Or we can deny him and live according to the way of the world, climbing over each other for whatever goal we think will gain the world’s approval. This way feels like gaining the world but ultimately leads to losing everything, even life itself. Jesus’ paradoxical pattern tells us that only by dying to self are we able to return to life in community under God’s rule. Jesus’ broken body has become the bread of heaven and his blood poured out for our sake has become the cup of salvation. What do we, as church, need to focus on doing more intentionally in order to clearly demonstrate that we follow Jesus and are becoming the body and blood of Christ that we see, eat, and drink at this common meal that we call the eucharist?

<p>&copy; 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved <p>

February 22, 2015 (Year B Lent 1) Celtic Meditation

Mark 1:9-15

In this season of Lent, we have the opportunity to consider how our identity as church is formed and confirmed in order to serve out of that identity. Before Jesus was driven by the Spirit into the wilderness, he was given a clear description of his identity through his baptism. How, for us as church, does baptism supply our identity so that we can stand firm against temptation?

Even though Jesus was away from human company during his temptation, he neither chose this isolation nor was he completely separated from God’s care. God’s holy angels waited on him and cared for him. Even in the wilderness, the desolate forsaken place, Jesus was in community with others who recognized his identity and came to support him in his time of temptation. In our evening prayers, we have the option to pray for God’s holy angels to lead us in paths of peace and goodwill [1] and for angels to be given charge over those who sleep.[2] Angels watching over and caring for God’s people is part of the biblical worldview that we tend to ignore in our day. How, as church, have we experienced God’s gracious care for us in unexpected, maybe even what some might call “supernatural,” ways?

In this gospel account, Jesus does not choose to go into 40 days of temptation. His 40 days are necessary in order for him to enter into solidarity with his people, past, present, and future. To understand how Jesus’ 40 days is entering into the larger story of redemption, we need to re-wind the story nearly 2000 years to the Exodus. God delivered the Israelites from slavery, which included taking them through the Red Sea which is a baptism into a new life of freedom to serve God. But after this mighty deliverance, they refused to trust God completely regarding entering into the land of Canaan. They did not live into this new identity given to them when they crossed the Red Sea. As penance, they wandered in the wilderness for 40 years. Jesus symbolically enters into this penance even though he was not guilty of lack of trust, to demonstrate his solidarity with his people.[3] This action by Jesus signifies how he understands his identity in community. For some Christians, the practice of Lent includes imitating Jesus’ 40 days in the wilderness in order to live into solidarity with Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection for the sake of the world. This tradition is one way of practicing repentance, of turning away from what does not support our life as those baptized into Christ and to turn to a fuller expression of the baptismal life of trusting God’s declaration that through baptism we are God’s children (John 1:12). After his time in the wilderness of wrestling against temptation, Jesus returns to city life to proclaim that the time is fulfilled, the kingdom of God is near. The people of Israel had waited 40 years to enter into the land of Canaan. The people of God had waited for close to 2000 years between the giving of the Law through Moses to experience the grace that is given through Jesus (John 1:17). Jesus calls the people to repent and believe the good news that the kingdom of God is near. From what, as church, do we need to repent and what do we need to believe in order to live more fully into our baptismal identity?

© 2015 Donna R. Hawk-Reinhard, All Rights Reserved

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[1] Suffrages B in Evening Prayer, Book of Common Prayer, 122

[2] Prayer for Mission, Book of Common Prayer, 124

[3] See Numbers 13; 32:11-12 and Joshua 5:6 then Hebrews 2:17-18